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    Episodic use often takes the form of binges cheap anafranil 50 mg amex, followed by an intense and unpleasant “crash” in which the individual experiences anxiety discount 50mg anafranil otc, irritability purchase 10 mg anafranil fast delivery, and feelings of fatigue and depression. Continued use appears to be related to a “craving” for the substance, rather than to prevention or alleviation of with- drawal symptoms. Substance-Related Disorders ● 81 Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-like) Intoxication 1. Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms occur after cessation of (or reduction in) amphetamine (or a related substance) use that has been heavy and prolonged. Symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal develop within a few hours to several days and include fatigue; vivid, unpleasant dreams; insomnia or hypersomnia; increased appetite; and psychomotor retardation or agitation. It is commonly regarded incorrectly to be a substance with- out potential for dependence. Abuse is evidenced by participation in hazardous activities while motor coordination is impaired from cannabis use. Physical symptoms of cannabis intoxication include conjuncti- val injection, increased appetite, dry mouth, and tachycardia. Chronic daily (or almost daily) use usually results in an increase in dosage over time to produce the desired effect. Episodic use often takes the form of binges, followed by an in- tense and unpleasant “crash” in which the individual experiences anxiety, irritability, and feelings of fatigue and depression. Cocaine abuse and dependence lead to tolerance of the substance and subsequent use of increasing doses. Continued use appears to be related to a “craving” for the substance, rather than to prevention or alleviation of with- drawal symptoms. Symptoms of cocaine intoxication develop during, or shortly after, use of cocaine. Symptoms of cocaine intoxication include euphoria or affective blunting, changes in sociability, hypervigilance, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, tension, anger, stereo- typed behaviors, impaired judgment, and impaired social or occupational functioning. Physical symptoms of cocaine intoxication include tachycar- dia or bradycardia, pupillary dilation, elevated or lowered blood pressure, perspiration or chills, nausea or vomiting, psychomotor agitation or retardation, muscular weakness, respiratory depression, chest pain, cardiac arrhythmias, con- fusion, seizures, dyskinesias, dystonias, or coma. Symptoms of withdrawal occur after cessation of, or reduc- tion in, cocaine use that has been heavy and prolonged. Symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include dysphoric mood; fatigue; vivid, unpleasant dreams; insomnia or hypersomnia; increased appetite; psychomotor retardation or agitation. The cognitive and perceptual impairment may last for up to 12 hours, so use is generally episodic, because the individual must organize time during the daily schedule for its use. Dependence is rare, and most people are able to resume their previous lifestyle, following a period of hallucinogen use, without much difficulty. These episodes consist of visual or auditory misperceptions usually lasting only a few seconds but sometimes lasting up to several hours. Hallucinogens are highly unpredictable in the effects they may induce each time they are used. Symptoms include marked anxiety or depression, ideas of reference, fear of losing one’s mind, paranoid ideation, and impaired judgment. Other symptoms include subjective intensification of percep- tions, depersonalization, derealization, illusions, hallucina- tions, and synesthesias. Effects are induced by inhaling the vapors of volatile sub- stances through the nose or mouth. Examples of substances include glue, gasoline, paint, paint thinners, various cleaning chemicals, and typewriter correc- tion fluid.

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    Admittedly anafranil 10mg free shipping, the latter answer is just a fancy description of the hard and soft palate 50mg anafranil free shipping, but you need to recognize the fancy descriptions along with the common terms discount anafranil 10 mg line. You can rule out this answer option as false because a cuspid is a type of tooth, so it makes no sense that each tooth would have another type of tooth anchoring it. Pharyngopalatine arch M Arch that starts at the buccal surface of the palate at the base of the uvula and ends alongside the back third of the tongue: d. It facilitates swallowing, initiates the digestion of certain carbohydrates, and moistens and lubricates the mouth and lips. It lies below and in front of the ear, hence the Greek roots para–, meaning “beside,” and ot–, meaning “ear. Fungiform papillae S Large structures, each surrounded by a moat, that form a V-shaped furrow in the tongue: a. Cardiac sphincter 1 The sequential contraction of circular muscles as food moves through the esophagus is called d. A bit of Greek may help you remember this term, which comes from the word peristaltikos, which means “to wrap around. This question calls upon your knowledge of Greek prefixes and suffixes: pyl– means “gate,” and –orus means “guard. A silly but effective memory tool for this term is this: When food is ready to leave the stomach, it rings a chime. Chapter 9: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System 161 8 The muscle that contracts to prevent gastric juices of the stomach from entering the esophagus is the b. To remember this one, keep in mind that the sphincter that serves this purpose is the closest digestive sphincter to the heart. Seeing as the food spends the most time there, it makes sense that it’s the site of a lot of digestion. It’s tricky to remember which of these enzymes is inactive until it combines with something else. You can either try to memorize the function of each enzyme, or you can pick apart the terms. What structure of the small intestine is composed of a network of capillaries with a central lymph vessel or lacteal, which contains a milky-white substance? Besides, all but one of the other answer options — rugae, islets of Langerhans, and plicae circularis — aren’t even in the small intestine. To help you answer this question, it may help to hark back to Chapter 8’s discussion of the nasal sinuses, which we defined as empty spaces. From a month after you’re con- ceived to the moment of your death, this phenomenal powerhouse pushes a liquid connec- tive tissue — blood — and its precious cargo of oxygen and nutrients to every nook and cranny of the body, and then it keeps things moving to bring carbon dioxide and waste products back out again. Do the math: How many pulses has your ticker clocked if the average heart keeps up a pace of 72 beats per minute, 100,000 per day, or roughly 36 million per year? Moving to the Beat of a Pump Also called the cardiovascular system, the circulatory system includes the heart, all blood vessels, and the blood that moves endlessly through it all (see Figure 10-1). It’s what’s referred to as a closed double system; the term “closed” is used for three reasons: because the blood is contained in the heart and its vessels; because the vessels specifically target the blood to the tissues; and because the heart critically regulates blood flow to the tissues. The system is called “double” because there are two distinct circuits and cavities within the heart separated by a wall of muscle called the septum. The double circuits are the following: The pulmonary circuit carries blood to and from the lungs for gaseous exchange. Centered in the right side of the heart, this circuit receives blood saturated with carbon dioxide from the veins and pumps it through the pulmonary artery (or trunk) to capillaries in the lungs, where the carbon dioxide departs the system. That same blood, freshly loaded with oxygen, then returns to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins where it enters the second circuit. The systemic circuit uses the oxygen-rich blood to maintain a constant internal environ- ment around the body’s tissues.

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    Any heat Fluidotherapy was developed in the 1970s as a treatment may cause damage if there are excessive dry-heat modality consisting of cellulose particles temperatures or improper insulation or treatment suspended in air anafranil 25 mg on-line. Overexposure to heat may cause redness order anafranil 50 mg without prescription, ent sizes discount anafranil 75 mg with visa, and some are restricted to treating only a blisters, burns, or reduced blood circulation, and in hand or foot. The turbulence of the gas-solid mix- ultrasound therapy, excessive heat over bony areas ture provides heat to objects immersed in the with little soft tissue (such as hands, feet, and medium. Temperatures of this treatment range elbows) may cause pain and possible tissue dam- from 110°F to 123°F (43. Exposure to the electrode drum during ing and increasing the flow of blood to the limb, diathermy may produce hot spots. Sluggish or administered by way of an ultrasound transmitting impaired blood circulation may contribute to heat- device, penetrates the body to provide relief to related injuries. Also a diagnostic tool, ultrasound used for pregnant women or individuals afflicted energy occurs in the acoustic or sound spectrum with heart, lung, or kidney diseases, or on areas and is undetectable to the human ear. By using above the eye or heart, or over areas where there conducting agents such as gel or mineral oil, the are metal surgical implants. Certain areas of the muscu- loskeletal system absorb ultrasound better than hypnotherapy Also referred to as hypnosis, var- others. Muscle tissue and other connective tissue ied techniques used by psychiatrists, psychologists, such as ligaments and tendons absorb this form of and other psychotherapists to guide the patient energy very well; fat absorbs it to a much lesser into a state of altered awareness, deep relaxation, degree. Ultrasound has a relatively long-lasting or trance in order to help treat anxiety, panic effect, continuing up to one hour. Hypnosis has also enjoyed much popularity between the 1940s and been used successfully as a substitute for pharma- 1960s before the use of ultrasound, employs an ceutical anesthesia. The system is founded on the electrode drum used to apply heat to an affected idea of the power of suggestion—that one’s emo- hypnotherapy 63 tional status has a significant effect on one’s physi- Freud, known as the father of modern psychiatry, cal status, a concept dating back to ancient Greece, used hypnosis in his practice in the 19th century, India, and Persia. In 1958 the American Medical Mesmerism—to the medical community in the late Association also officially recognized hypnosis; that 18th century. Mesmer’s theory was that when mag- recognition eventually led to the establishment of netic forces existing in all matter became unbal- several professional associations, including the anced, disease occurred, and he believed he could American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and the transfer his body’s “animal magnetism” to another American Institute of Hypnotherapy, whose mem- through the use of magnets, iron rods, and “mes- bers are physicians, psychologists, dentists, and merizing,” or highly soothing, verbal suggestions other health professionals. Despite the fact that Contemporary hypnosis has been shown to help the healing potential of mind over matter and deep the body release endorphins and enkephalins relaxation states including trance emerged, Mes- (morphine-like chemicals naturally produced by mer’s theories could not be scientifically proved by the body to assuage pain and promote a sense of a committee of investigators in the French medical well-being), improve circulation, lower blood pres- community, among whom were the American sure and heart rate, and generally elicit deep relax- statesman Benjamin Franklin and the French physi- ation that is beneficial in fighting stress, anxiety, cian Josef de Guillotin. Mesmer was branded a depression, chronic pain, and disease of many quack and banned from practicing in France. Many hypnotherapists say that the patient It was later that the British ophthalmologist benefits most if he or she is willing to participate in James Braid explored Mesmer’s ideas with his the process of hypnosis, and that people who are patients and renamed the technique hypnosis, after not willing cannot be hypnotized. While scholars infusion A liquid injected into a vein, or a sub- feel that massage originated in China it is certain stance steeped in hot or cold water and ingested for that each country throughout the world had devel- therapeutic purposes. A tea is considered an infu- oped and passed down their methods for treating sion, for example. Ancient writings of Egypt, venous infusion may be a solution containing Persia, Greece, Rome, and Asian countries mention electrolytes, nutrients, and pharmaceutical agents. An infusodecoction is an infusion followed by a We instinctively rub, press, pat, or in some way decoction, that is, a medicine stock that contains a touch when we ache, feel pain, or just don’t feel crude drug that is first steeped in cold water and right. The simple understand- an alternative method for the treatment of certain ing that humans are equipped to heal themselves, cancers, involving the administration of a small and that we can also help others, is the underlying dose of insulin to cancer patients with the intention foundation of shiatsu. If we live according to nat- of inducing hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar ural laws we really shouldn’t have many troubles. It is believed that once low blood sugar level Unfortunately we don’t consistently live that way is achieved, low doses of intravenous conventional and humankind has had to devise ways to deal chemotherapy may be more effective, because with the suffering that we experience. Ultimately insulin potentiates the cells’ ability to be permeated to regain wholeness we must change our way of by the cancer medications.

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