By F. Vigo. Mount Union College. 2018.
The decision about when to operate will depend on the expertise and facilities available and the condition of the patient buy cardizem 60 mg, but we suspect from our experience that early surgery in high lesion patients can sometimes precipitate respiratory failure 120 mg cardizem visa, requiring prolonged ventilation best 180 mg cardizem. Some patients require late spinal fusion because of failed conservative treatment. Treated by operative reduction and stabilisation by wiring the spinous processes of The upper cervical spine C5 to T1 and bone grafting. As injuries of the upper cervical spine are often initially associated with acute respiratory failure, prompt appropriate treatment is important, including ventilation if necessary. Other patients may have little or no neurological deficit but again prompt treatment is important to prevent neurological deterioration. The most common, a fracture of the posterior arch, is due to an extension-compression force and is a stable injury which can be safely treated by immobilisation in a firm collar. The second type, the Jefferson fracture, is due to a vertical compression force to the vertex of the skull, resulting in the occipital condyles being driven downwards to produce a bursting injury, in which there is outward displacement of the lateral masses of the atlas and in which the transverse ligament may also have been ruptured. This is an unstable injury with the potential for atlanto-axial instability, and skull traction or immobilisation in a halo brace is necessary for at least eight weeks. Note the fanning of the spinous processes fractures) are usually caused by hyperextension, and result in of C5 and C6, angulation between the bodies of C5 and C6, and bony posterior displacement of the odontoid and posterior fragments anteriorly. MRI showed central disc prolapse at C5-6 with subluxation of Cl on C2; flexion injuries produce anterior cord compression. If displacement is considerable, reduction is achieved almost complete neurological recovery. Right: anteroposterior view shows Jefferson fracture clearly with outward displacement of the right lateral mass of the atlas. Immobilisation is continued for at least three to four months, depending on radiographic signs of healing. Atlanto-axial fusion may be undertaken by the anterior or posterior route if there is non-union and atlanto-axial instability. Anterior odontoid screw fixation may prevent rotational instability and avoid the need for a halo brace. It was seen in judicial hanging, is usually produced by hyperextension reduced by applying 4kg traction force, with atlanto-occipital flexion; of the head on the neck, or less commonly with flexion. This the position was subsequently maintained by using a reduced weight results in a fracture through the pedicles of the axis in the of 1. Bony union occurs readily, but gentle skull traction should be maintained for six weeks, followed by immobilisation in a firm collar for a further two months. Indeed, in all upper cervical fracture-dislocations once reduction has been achieved control can usually be obtained by reducing the traction force to only 1–2kg. If more weight is used, neurological deterioration may result from overdistraction at the site of injury. An alternative approach when there is no bony displacement or when reduction has been achieved is to apply a halo brace. It must be remembered that in this condition the neck is normally flexed, and to straighten the cervical spine will tend to cause respiratory obstruction, increase the deformity and risk further spinal cord damage. The cervicothoracic junction Closed reduction of a C7–T1 facet dislocation is often difficult if not impossible, in which case operative reduction by Figure 6. It is very difficult to brace the upper thoracic spine, and if such a patient is mobilised too quickly a severe flexion deformity of the spine may develop. In the majority of patients with a thoracic spinal cord injury, the neurological deficit is complete, and patients are usually managed conservatively by six to eight weeks’ bed rest.
Our bodies and the circumstances in which they are placed can pro- vide a wealth of information if we know how to access it cardizem 60mg cheap, listen to it buy cardizem 120 mg without prescription, and try to understand it cheap 120mg cardizem amex. As a medical detective using our Eight Step method, you will begin by collecting and documenting the presence or absence of the primary evidence of your mystery malady. So perform each step and then do it again, as needed, part- nering with your physician as you proceed. At the conclusion of that chapter, you’ll have completed a diagnostic notebook that can help your doctor help you to solve your mystery malady. And in Chap- ter 5, we’ll show you how to do medical detective work on the Internet as you continue the search for clues to solve your mystery malady. If you’re willing to spend the time and make the effort, the Eight Steps to Self-Diagnosis and the other tools and techniques we’ll share in this book can help you not only ﬁnd the solution to your mystery malady but live well while you’re doing it. John Ball, UNDERSTANDING DISEASE In this chapter we reveal the revolutionary self-diagnosis model you’ve been waiting for. We’ve already discussed what mystery maladies are, how these conditions may develop, and the open mind-set that is necessary to begin to unravel them. In this chap- ter, we will outline the Eight Step method designed to help you become your own medical detective. If you carefully work through the Eight Steps to Self-Diagnosis, you will uncover at least one or more important clues to solving your mystery malady. Each step builds on the one before it, and all the steps taken together will create a much clearer picture of your mystery malady. It requires a serious level of commitment on your part to work through the Eight Steps. Keep in mind that actually doing them is different from simply reading about them. The solutions you have been searching for can be discovered 35 Copyright © 2005 by Lynn Dannheisser and Jerry Rosenbaum. It won’t necessarily be a quick or easy process, but we promise the ben- eﬁts you’ll receive will be directly proportional to the effort you are willing to make. We can guarantee that even if you don’t actually solve your mys- tery malady, if you follow the Eight Steps and do the required work, you will have more information about your malady than you had before (which may even lead to some symptom relief). If, at any point, you feel yourself becoming daunted by the work, remind yourself that until now you’ve probably left most of your medical care and decision making up to “the experts. As the wise physician Hippocrates said long ago, “If you are not your own doctor, you are a fool. Tips for Doing the Eight Steps Some of the questions that you’ll be asking yourself in different steps may seem to overlap or duplicate one another. The overlap is designed to pick up things you might have overlooked earlier. If you don’t know the answers immediately, start paying more attention to your body and see if you can make the determination over time. If you are not certain at ﬁrst whether a “symptom” is really a symptom, record it anyway with a question mark. By the time you are done, you will be able to either remove the question mark or eliminate that symptom alto- gether. Pay close attention to the things you want to immediately dismiss as having no bearing on your symptoms, because these may be the very things that can give rise to an important clue. Remember this model has worked for countless others who have little or no medical expertise, and it is likely to work for you if you’ll do the nec- essary work.
The authoritarian dynamic in New Labour’s public health policy becomes increasingly apparent as we move from the discussion of aims and targets to the local ‘healthy settings’ in which the policy will be implemented and contract compliance enforced purchase 120mg cardizem fast delivery. In ‘healthy schools’ 180 mg cardizem otc, children will have their eating habits monitored to promote ‘healthy eating’ and be dragooned into physical exercise buy 120mg cardizem amex. Meanwhile in their ‘healthy workplaces’ their parents will be following the government’s list of precise instructions for ‘employees’. They can ‘play their part in following health and safety guidelines’, ‘work with employers to create a healthy working environment’, ‘support colleagues who have problems or who are disabled’ and ‘contribute to charitable and social work through work-based voluntary organisations’ (DoH February 1998:51). In my surgery I see two striking consequences of the ascendancy of the new public health. On the one hand, I meet the burgeoning numbers of the ‘worried well’, young people who would once have been considered healthy, but are now—with official encouragement —anxiously seeking ‘check-ups’ and advice about an ever widening range of diseases about which there is an ever increasing level of awareness. The facts that many of these diseases are rare, that screening tests are often not helpful and that preventive measures seldom have proven value makes no difference to the demand for advice, assessment or reassurance. On the other hand, I meet many older people with serious health problems caused by osteoarthritis of the hip, cataracts or coronary heart disease who are suffering (and sometimes dying) waiting months and years for surgical treatments. While resources are poured into projects that use health to enhance social control, real health needs—especially those of the elderly— are neglected. In the following chapters we will be looking more closely at different aspects of the medicalisation of society, including both the widening range of medical intervention and at its greater penetration into the personal life of the individual. This is a process with adverse consequences for the individual and for society. Despite the fact that more people enjoy better health, the intense awareness of health risks means that people feel more ill. This results in an increasing 10 INTRODUCTION burden of demand on the health care system that every Western society experiences growing difficulty in meeting. In the penultimate chapter we turn to examine the current crisis of medicine and the medical profession—a set of issues which may appear unconnected to the process of medicalisation. Indeed, early critics of the medicalisation of society depicted this as a process driven by medical authorities and anticipated that it would lead to a further growth in medical prestige and power (Zola 1972). In fact, though, doctors have made a substantial contribution to the medicalisation process, as a profession they can scarcely be regarded today as its beneficiaries. The new millennium finds the medical profession in an unprecedented crisis of confidence, with its leaders expressing a beleagured and inward-looking mentality and its ordinary members preoccupied with stress. Through surveying the evolution of the crisis of medicine we can examine the contribution of both internal factors (the specific difficulties of post-war medical science) and external factors (the influence of the social and political events of recent decades). From this perspective, the trend towards medicalisation may be seen as both a consequence of the wider problems of medicine and as a factor exacer-bating them. The relentless politicisation of health under New Labour, which gathered momentum when the prime minister assumed personal responsiblity for the modernisation of the NHS in early 2000, is destined to intensify the process of medicalisation—and the problems of the medical profession and the health service. The key problem is that, just as the role of medicine in society has expanded, the NHS is called upon to play an ever wider role in the life of the nation. When most other institutions that once inspired popular loyalty are now, like the Royal Family, widely scorned, and attempts to foster a collective spirit around Britpop and the Dome have proved a big disappointment, New Labour is left with that great standby of Old Labour politicians, the ‘jewel in the crown’ of the post-war welfare state—the NHS. The NHS serves as a focus for New Labour’s populist gestures to the consumer culture which it believes to be the authentic voice of today’s Britain: hence NHS Direct and walk-in GP surgeries. It is also a key target of Tony Blair’s modernising zeal as he takes on those whom he has designated the ‘forces of conservatism’ in the crusade for quality, transparency and accountability. The NHS is also expected to help in the government’s drive to foster new bonds of community, through encouraging collaboration in the name of health among different agencies and professionals. New Labour 11 INTRODUCTION hopes to take advantage of the prestige of the NHS to advance its project of revitalising the institutional framework of British society and restoring the links between the individual and the state. Even though the government has allocated more funds to the health service, its wider policies are imposing a burden of expectations that will be almost impossible to fulfil, but will have far reaching consequences for our ability to live our lives as we choose.
Osteotomy of the proximal femur and the acetabular-pelvic area (posttraumatic conditions buy discount cardizem 120 mg on-line, dysplastic deformities and changes order 180mg cardizem otc, etc order cardizem 120 mg mastercard. Bone grafting, cartilage transplantation (for posttraumatic and benign bone lesions and diseases, etc. The individual decision Joint-Preserving and Joint-Replacing Procedures Compared 139 All these procedures still must be critically and advantageously regarded, evaluated, and selected. Experiences in the past have demonstrated in many cases that, with an adequate indication and correct technique, remarkable time savings can be achieved until a joint replacement becomes necessary as a subsequent procedure (Fig. Last but not least, the surgeon in our age also has to remember that osteoporotic bone deﬁciencies must receive additional drug therapy as a prophylactic and thera- peutic measure to stop osteoclast production and progressive bone loss (Raloxifen, Biphosphonates, etc. Therefore, the orthopaedic surgeon must remember that the treatment of a hip disease (including posttraumatic defects) does not end with the surgical intervention!! Bone and joint diseases (including trauma) require comprehensive treatment, starting with a detailed diagnosis and careful decision making. They cannot be solved exclusively by surgical interventions, especially joint replacement alone. Weller The Joint-Replacing Procedure If our joint-preserving methods have reached their limits and, because of unbearable pain and growing disability, further therapeutic steps have to be selected, joint replacement becomes a good and advantageous solution. Our initial concept and technique over many years have remained unchanged. We have studied and looked into the problems of biological ﬁxation with the goal of improving our long-term results in hip joint replacement. Still, we must consider the relative merits of cemented and cementless technique for each patient, but in the case of the cementless primary hip replacement, proximal load transfer and high axial and rotational stability were deﬁned as the key charac- teristics for our “Bicontact”-philosophy. These requirements meanwhile, after 19 years experience, are well accepted today and we use them before many others. We have added to our earlier concepts the methods of contemporary cementing tech- niques, press-ﬁt cup arthroplasty, and advanced hip joint articulation. Implant exten- sions also met additional requirements of implant sizing in primary and revision surgery. We have seen remarkable change within our patient community, with an increase of elderly people—and a more disadvantageous increase of many young patients—receiving total replacement as a ﬁrst and primary choice. This change must lead our attention to an individual decision, that is, whether to select the cemented or noncemented technique, which choice quite often has to be made intraoperatively. The Bicontact Hip System fulﬁlls all these aspects and thus justiﬁes the catalogue of requirements we initially have laid down. After more than 19 years of Bicontact hip replacement, a statement on the correct- ness of our considerations relating to design and performance of the entire Bicontact philosophy can be made. This self-critical appraisal is based on the experiences of our own prospective study results, other published Bicontact results, and multiple worldwide experience reports. Many constructive thoughts and developments in the ﬁeld of hip arthroplasty have been communicated, implemented, and introduced in clinical practice during the last few decades (46 years since Charnley). In many respects, these have resulted in visible and fundamental improvements concerning basic implant design, materials, and clinical results [4–10]. The cemented ﬁxation of the prosthetic components introduced by Charnley (1959/1960) with his low-friction principle of the joint implant had a fundamental inﬂuence and promoted its growing use in clinical medicine. Over the years, however, we had to realize and observe certain disadvantages in context with the extended use of cement, especially in the increasing numbers of revisions. The introduction of so-called cementless, “biological implantation” techniques during the past two decades has heralded a new era in hip replacement. With the development and introduction of the “Bicontact Hip Endoprosthesis System” in 1986–1987, we, at that time, did not intend to add another version to the numerous innovations of the most diverse types of hip implants.
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