By G. Hector. Charter Oak State College. 2018.
It focuses on the practical aspects of medical malpractice lawsuits buy 5 ml fml forte visa, and prepares physicians and surgeons to participate in the public policy debate by addressing current topics that will help them understand the crisis buy fml forte 5 ml line, the threat to healthcare access buy fml forte 5 ml with mastercard, and the possibilities for legal reform. Features • Comprehensive review of contemporary medical • Detailed coverage for family physicians, malpractice litigation physicians, anesthesiologists, plastic surgeons, • How to win medical malpractice suits: what and emergency room doctors every doctor should know about litigation • Evaluation of the emerging legal significance of • Viewpoints of doctors, lawyers, policy experts, e-medicine and the malpractice insurance industry • Survey of breast cancer and pap smear litigation • Discussion of the mechanics and operations of • Medical liability in obstetrics/gynecology and malpractice insurance plastic and reconstructive surgery • Physician response to litigation as either • Proposals for new directions in medical liability defendant or expert witness reform • Risk management for all practicing physicians Contents Part I. What Every Doctor Should Know About Litigation: A Primer on How to Win Medical Malpractice Lawsuits. Medical Malpractice: A Physician’s Guide ISBN: 1-58829-389-0 E-ISBN: 1-59259-845-5 humanapress. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. Medical and psychosocial aspects of chronic illness and disability / Donna Falvo. Printed in the United States of America 09 08 07 06 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dedication This book is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Alan Woolf, A man of science, presence, integrity, strength, and honor This page intentionally left blank About the Author Donna Falvo, R. She is a Registered Nurse, Licensed Psychologist, and Certifed Rehabilitation Counselor. A former Professor and Coordinator of Rehabilitation Counseling, Rehabilitation Institute, Southern Illinois University, she was named a Mary Switzer Scholar in 1986, and elect- ed to Sigma XI National Scientiﬁc Research Society in 1995. She was elected President of the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association in 1998 and currently serves on the Editorial Board of the Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin. She is the author of over 40 articles and book chapters and, in addition to authoring the two previous editions of Medical and Psychosocial Aspects of Chronic Illness and Disability, she is author of the book Effective Patient Education: A Guide to Increased Compliance, also in its third edition. Their dedication and com- mitment to individuals with chronic illness and disability is greatly appreciated by the author as well as by the individuals they serve. Eileen Burker, PhD, CRC Stacy Carone, EdD, CRC Fred Price, RN, MBA (c) Associate Professor Assistant Professor Nurse Manager Department of Allied Health Department of Allied Health North Carolina Jaycee Burn Science Science Center Divison of Rehabilitation Division of Rehabilitation University of North Psychology and Psychology and Carolina Hospitals Counseling Counseling Chapel Hill, North Carolina School of Medicine School of Medicine The University of North The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Carolina at Chapel Hill Dianne Rawdanowicz Rehabilitation Counselor N. Falvo, PhD Rehabilitation Services CRC Adjunct Professor Department of Health and Rehabilitation Counselor Cell & Molecular Physiology Human Services North Carolina Jaycee Burn School of Medicine Raleigh, North Carolina Center The University of North University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Carolina Hospitals Stephanie J. Sjoblad, AuD Chapel Hill, North Carolina Clinic Director Ernest Grant, RN, MSN Audiologist/ Assistant Outreach Coordinator Professor Patrick P. Carone, MD North Carolina Jaycee Burn Allied Health Sciences Psychiatrist Center Division of Speech/Hearing Carolina Rehabilitation and University of North School of Medicine Surgical Associates Carolina Hospitals The University of North Cary, North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina Carolina at Chapel Hill Dawn E. Kleinman, MD Dermatologist Alamance Skin Center Burlington, North Carolina vii This page intentionally left blank C HAPTER 1 Preface In its third edition, Medical and Psycho- continues to use a functional approach to social Aspects of Chronic Illness and Disa- understanding a number of medical con- bility has been revised and updated. In an attempt to reinforce this Certain sections, such as those on condi- approach, an Appendix on Functional tions of the nervous system have been Limitations has been added (Appendix E). Added to the Chronic illness and disability impact all end of each chapter are brief case studies areas of individual’s and their family’s to stimulate discussion. Only by understanding an individ- thetical and not based on any speciﬁc case ual’s total experience with chronic illness or individual. The focus tle prior medical knowledge but who work of the book is to help professionals and with individuals with chronic illness and students understand medical and psycho- disability and need to have an understand- social aspects of chronic illness and dis- ing of medical conditions, their implica- ability and how they affect an individual’s tions, and need to have an understanding functioning in all areas of life, including of medical terms. It is designed as a refer- psychological and social impact, impact ence book for professionals in the ﬁeld as on activities of daily living, and on voca- well as a textbook for students. Individuals with chronic ill- The impact of chronic illness and dis- ness or disability who do not ﬁt the socially ability is far-reaching, extending beyond determined norm may ﬁnd that, regard- the individual to all those with whom the less of their strengths and abilities, they individual has contact. Chronic illness continue to be regarded in the context of and disability affect all facets of life, societal views rather than their own. Consequently, one the extent of impact, every chronic illness must consider the effect of the diagnosis, or disability requires some alteration and symptoms, and treatment on all aspects of adjustment in daily life.
Quiet standing for 5 to 10 minutes invariably the decreased stretch of the cardiopulmonary receptors that leads to sighing order 5 ml fml forte fast delivery. This exaggerated respiratory movement provides the primary steady state afferent information for the lowers intrathoracic pressure more than usually occurs with reflex cardiovascular response to standing cheap 5 ml fml forte. The fall in intrathoracic pressure raises the The heart and brain do not participate in the arteriolar transmural pressure of the intrathoracic vessels buy cheap fml forte 5 ml on line, causing constriction caused by increased sympathetic nerve activity these vessels to expand. Contraction of the diaphragm si- during standing; therefore, the blood flow and supply of oxy- multaneously raises intraabdominal pressure, which com- gen and nutrients to these two vital organs are maintained. Because the venous valves pre- vent the backflow of blood into the legs, the raised intraabdominal pressure forces blood toward the intratho- Muscle and Respiratory Pumps Help racic vessels (which are expanding because of the lowered Maintain Central Blood Volume intrathoracic pressure). The seesaw action of the respiratory Although standing would appear to be a perfect situation pump tends to displace extrathoracic blood volume toward for increased venoconstriction (which could return some of the chest and raise right atrial pressure and stroke volume. During Just after contraction contraction Just before contraction 90 mm Hg added hydrostatic pressure Artery Vein Arterial pressure Venous pressure 90 + 93 mm Hg 90 + 10 mm Hg 90 + 93 mm Hg 20 + 10 mm Hg FIGURE 18. This mechanism increases ve- static column of blood, lowering venous (and capillary) hydro- nous return and decreases venous volume. Inspiration leads to an (mL) increase in venous return and stroke volume. The decline in arterial pres- sure is caused by a steady loss of plasma volume, as fluid fil- ters out of capillaries of the legs. The center section shows the effects of a shift from the prone to the upright position with quiet standing. The right panel shows the effect of activating the muscle pump by contracting leg muscles. Note that the muscle pump restores central blood volume and cardiac output to the levels in the prone position. The fall in heart rate and rise in peripheral blood flow (forearm, splanchnic, and renal) associated with activation of the muscle pump reflect the reduction in baroreceptor reflex activity associated with increased cardiac output. RVEDP, right ventricular end-diastolic pressure; SVR, systemic vascular resistance. Small type represents compensatory changes that return variables toward the original values. These factors, together with neural and 30 minutes, a 10% loss of blood volume into the interstitial myogenic responses and the muscle and respiratory pumps, space can occur. This loss, coupled with the 550 mL dis- play a significant role during the seconds and minutes fol- placed by redistribution from the central blood volume into lowing standing (Fig. The combination of all of the legs, causes central blood volume to fall to a level so low these factors minimizes net capillary filtration, making it that reflex sympathetic nerve activity cannot maintain car- possible to remain standing for long periods. Diminished cerebral blood flow and a loss of consciousness (fainting) result. Arteriolar constriction due to the increased reflex sym- Long-Term Responses Defend Venous pathetic nerve activity tends to reduce capillary hydrostatic Return During Prolonged Upright Posture pressure. However, this alone does not bring capillary hy- In addition to the relatively short-term cardiovascular re- drostatic pressure back to normal because it does not affect sponses, there are equally important long-term adjustments the hydrostatic pressure exerted on the capillaries from the to orthostasis. The muscle pump is the most important factor bed (or astronauts not subject to the force of gravity). The people who are bedridden, intermittent upright posture alternate compression and filling of the veins as the muscle does not shift the distribution of blood volume from the pump works means the venous valves are closed most of the thorax to the legs. When the valves are closed, the hydrostatic column tral blood volume (and pressure) is greater than in a person of blood in the leg veins at any point is only as high as the who is periodically standing up in the presence of gravity. The average increase in central blood volume caused by ex- The myogenic response of arterioles to increased trans- mural pressure also acts to oppose filtration. As discussed earlier, raising the transmural pressure stretches vascular smooth muscle and stimulates it to contract. This is espe- Blood cially true for the myocytes of precapillary arterioles.
Eur Radiol [Epub ahead of print] bone marrow hyperplasia: correlation of spinal MR findings discount fml forte 5 ml mastercard, Piney A (1922) The anatomy of the bone marrow buy fml forte 5 ml otc. Br Med J 2:792- hematologic parameters purchase fml forte 5 ml with amex, and bone mineral density in en- 795 durance athletes. Radiology 198:503-508 Rahmouni A, Divine M, Mathieu D et al (1993) Detection of mul- Cuenod CA, Laredo JD, Chevret S, Hamze B, Naouri JF, Chapaux tiple myeloma involving the spine: efficacy of fat-suppression X, Bondeville JM, Tubiana JM (1996) Acute vertebral collapse and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol due to osteoporosis or malignancy: appearance on unenhanced 160:1049-1052 and gadolinium-enhanced MR images. Radiology 199:541- Rahmouni A, Montazel JL, Divine M, Lepage E, Belhadj K, 519 Gaulard P, Bouanane M, Golli M, Kobeiter H (2003) Bone Daffner RH, Lupetin AR, Dash N, Deeb ZL, Sefczek RJ, Schapiro marrow with diffuse tumor infiltration in patients with lym- RL (1986) MRI in the detection of malignant infiltration of phoproliferative diseases: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR bone marrow. Radiology 229:710-717 Daldrup HE, Link TM, Blasius S et al (1999) Monitoring radiation- Ryan SP, Weinberger E, White KS et al (1995) MR imaging of induced changes in bone marrow histopathology with ultra- bone marrow in children with osteosarcoma: effect of granu- small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol J Magn Reson Imaging 9:643-652 165:915-920 Daldrup-Link HE, Rummeny EJ, Ihssen B, Kienast J, Link TM Schmidt GP, Baur-Melnyk A, Tiling R, Hahn K, Reiser MF, (2002) Iron-oxide-enhanced MR imaging of bone marrow in Schoenberg SO (2004) Hochauflösendes Ganzkörpertumors- patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: differentiation be- taging unter Verwendung paralleler Bildgebung im Vergleich tween tumor infiltration and hypercellular bone marrow. Radiologe 44:889-898 Deely DM, Schweitzer ME (1997) MR imaging of bone marrow Seiderer M, Stäbler A, Wagner H (1999) MRI of bone marrow: op- disorders. Radiol Clin North Am 35:193-212 posed-phase gradient-echo sequences with long repetition Dunnill MS, Anderson JA, Whitehead R (1967) Quantitative his- time. J Path Bact Seneterre E, Weissleder R, Jaramillo D et al (1991) Bone marrow: 94:275-291 ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide for MR imaging. Durie BGM, Salmon SE (1975) A clinical staging system for mul- Radiology 179:529-533 tiple myeloma. Correlation of measured myeloma cell mass Stäbler A, Baur A, Bartl R, Munker R, Lamerz R, Reiser MF with presenting clinical features, response to treatment, and (1996) Contrast enhancement and quantitative signal analysis survival. Cancer 36:842-854 in MR imaging of multiple myeloma: assessment of focal and Engelhard K, Hollenbach HP, Wohlfart K, von Imhoff E, Fellner diffuse growth patterns in marrow correlated with biopsies and FA (2004) Comparison of whole-body MRI with automatic survival rates. AJR Am J Roentgenol 167:1029-1036 moving table technique and bone scintigraphy for screening Stäbler A, Doma AB, Baur A, Krüger A, Reiser MF (2000) for bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Eur Radiol Quantitative Assessment of Reactive Bone Marrow Changes in 14:99-105 Infectious Spondylitis. Radiology, Radiology 217:863-868 Frager D, Elkin C, Swerdlow M, Bloch S (1988) Subacute osteo- Stäbler A, Krimmel K, Seiderer M, Gartner C, Fritsch S, Raum W. Skeletal Radiol 17:123-126 W (1992) Kernspintomographische Differenzierung osteo- 82 A. Stäbler porotisch und tumorbedingter Wirbelkörperfrakturen: head: predictive value of MR imaging findings. Radiology Wertigkeit von subtraktiven Gradientenechosequenzen mit 212:527-535 verlängerter Repetitionszeit, STIR Sequenzen und Gd-DTPA. Vande Berg BC, Michaux L, Scheiff JM et al (1996) Sequential Fortschr Röntgenstr 157:215-221 quantitative MR analysis of bone marrow: differences during Stäbler A, Schneider P, Link TM, Schöps P, Springer OS, Dürr HR, treatment of lymphoid versus myeloid leukemia. Radiology Reiser M (1999) Intravertebral vacuum phenomenon following 201:519-523 fractures: CT study on frequency and etiology. J Comput Vanel D, Missenard G, Le Cesne A, Guinebretiere JM (1997) Red Assist Tomogr 23:976-980 marrow recolonization induced by growth factors mimicking Steinborn MM, Heuck AF, Tiling R, Bruegel M, Gauger L, Reiser an increase in tumor volume during preoperative chemothera- MF (1999) Whole-body bone marrow MRI in patients with py: MR study. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:529-531 metastatic disease to the skeletal system. Radiology Tomogr 23:123-129 168:679-693 Steiner RM, Mitchell DG, Rao VM, Schweitzer ME (1993) Wilson AJ, Murphy WA, Hardy DC, Totty WG (1988) Transient os- Magnetic resonance imaging of diffuse bone marrow disease. Radiol Clin North Am 31:383-409 167(3):757-60 Tunaci M, Tunaci A, Engin G et al (1999) Imaging features of tha- Wismer GL, Rosen BR, Buxton R, Stark DD, Brady TJ (1985) lassemia. Eur Radiol 9:1804-1809 Chemical shift imaging of bone marrow: preliminary experi- Vande Berg BE, Malghem JJ, Labaisse MA, Noel HM, Maldague ence. AJR Am J Roentgenol 145:1031-1037 BE (1993) MR imaging of avascular necrosis and transient Yuh WTC, Zachar CK, Barloon TJ, Sato Y, Sickels WJ, Hawes DR marrow edema of the femoral head. Radiographics 13:501-520 (1989) Vertebral compression fractures: Distinction between Vande Berg BC, Malghem JJ, Lecouvet FE, Jamart J, Maldague BE benign and malignant causes with MR imaging. Radiology (1999) Idiopathic bone marrow edema lesions of the femoral 172:215-218 IDKD 2005 Metabolic and Systemic Bone Diseases* J.
The leading recommendations generic 5 ml fml forte amex, shown in the lower half of Table 1 fml forte 5 ml lowest price, are divided roughly into three approaches: (1) Table 2 Study Findings: Impact of Tort Reforms of 1970s and Early 1980s Decrease claim Decrease claim Lower liability payouts? Collateral source offset Significant in two of Significant in one of NS in two of two studies fml forte 5 ml with amex. The alternative to litigation that is enjoying widest interest at the moment is an “Early Offer” program in which patients and the health care organization would have incentives to negotiate private settle- ments immediately after an adverse event occurs (84–86). Other pro- posals would route malpractice claims through structured mediation (87), administrative law hearings (88), or medical courts (89,90). Sev- eral scholars have also paired alternative mechanisms for resolving disputes with an emphasis on private contracts, allowing patients to agree in advance with their provider or health plan to submit to speci- fied procedures, such as arbitration, in the event of an injury (91–93). A more radical approach to system reform would emulate workers’ compensation and remove negligence as the basis of eligibility for com- pensation (94). One version of this approach would empower an admin- istrative agency to judge compensation for all medical injury claims (95); another version would carve out from the tort system only certain classes of events—clinical outcomes that, by their very nature, are likely to have been preventable—and fast track them for adjudication accord- ing to predefined compensation criteria (96,97). The no-fault label traditionally given to this class of proposals is misleading because, following the lead of other countries, most actu- ally replace the negligence determination with one of avoidability (98,99). For example, bleeding following a limited colectomy that necessitates reoperation, more significant resection of the bowel, and ileostomy would always be considered avoidable, but determining whether this event is negligent would likely require careful review of the facts of the surgery. Because avoidability criteria make a larger pool of inju- ries eligible for compensation, they trigger cost concerns (99). Propo- nents contend that other efficiencies, such as reduced administrative and legal costs, should allay budgetary concerns; emphasize the pros- pects of fairer, more efficient compensation; and tout the close fit between the concept of avoidability and the system’s focus of the patient safety movement as a major strength (73). Finally, a number of commentators have proposed establishing hos- pitals or integrated delivery systems as the sole locus of legal responsi- bility (100,101). In so-called enterprise liability models, the enterprise assumes primary responsibility for any claim brought against an affili- Chapter 16 / Health Policy Review 241 ated clinician and covers affiliates’ liability costs at rates that vary from year to year according to the enterprise’s overall injury experience. It is argued that an organizational approach to compensation and deterrence along these lines would underscore the value of systemic approaches to quality improvement (85). Sweeping system reforms, such as administrative compensation schemes and enterprise liability, have attracted some high-profile sup- port in the current debate. Both the Institute of Medicine (85) and the blue-ribbon Governor’s Select Task Force on Healthcare Professional Liability Insurance in Florida (102) have endorsed pilot projects. How- ever, it seems politically unlikely that any of the most powerful voices in the debate will step forward to champion such initiatives. Organized medicine and the insurance industry continue to push for conventional tort reform and welcome the Bush Administration’s focus on damages caps. The trial bar, a powerful constituency for the Democratic Party, is focused on scuttling this reform and can be expected to resist vigorously any attempt at fundamental system change. A more likely scenario is that the current enthusiasm for change will result in another round of conventional tort reform, perhaps supple- mented by federal legislation that includes one or two innovative but modest system reforms, such as an Early Offer Program. This may have some beneficial impacts on insurance markets over the medium to long term. Unfortunately, it will do little to alleviate the haphazard- ness of compensation for patients injured by medical care, and those interested in advancing patient safety will continue to wrestle with an adversarial litigation system that undermines aspirations of transpar- ency and error reduction. Remediation of these more fundamental shortcomings requires more fundamental reform. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This chapter is reprinted with permission from Studdert DM, Mello MM, Brennan TA. A measure of malpractice: medical injury, malpractice litigation, and patient com- pensation. Of Swords and Shields: The use of clinical practice guidelines in medical malpractice litigation. Medical practice guidelines in malpractice litigation: an early retrospective. Physicians who have lost their malpractice in- surance: their demographic characteristics and the surplus-line companies that insure them.
10 of 10 - Review by G. Hector
Votes: 267 votes
Total customer reviews: 267