By X. Olivier. Hamline University. 2018.
Sinatro is referred to her primary care health care provider and given sublingual nitroglycerin tablets to use PRN for chest pain order 200mg celebrex with amex. What lifestyle modiﬁcations would help minimize the progression of coronary artery disease? OVERVIEW according to the amount of physical activity they can tolerate before anginal pain occurs (Box 53–2) celebrex 200 mg with mastercard. These categories can Angina pectoris is a clinical syndrome characterized by assist in clinical assessment and evaluation of therapy generic celebrex 100mg free shipping. It occurs when there is a deficit in Classic anginal pain is usually described as substernal myocardial oxygen supply (myocardial ischemia) in relation chest pain of a constricting, squeezing, or suffocating nature. It is most often caused by It may radiate to the jaw, neck, or shoulder, down the left or atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries but may also both arms, or to the back. The development and pro- taken for arthritis, or for indigestion, as the pain may be asso- gression of atherosclerotic plaque is called coronary artery ciated with nausea, vomiting, dizziness, diaphoresis, shortness disease (CAD). Atherosclerotic plaque narrows the lumen, of breath, or fear of impending doom. The discomfort is usu- decreases elasticity, and impairs dilation of coronary arteries. There are three main types of angina: classic adults may have atypical symptoms of CAD and may experi- angina, variant angina, and unstable angina (Box 53–1). The ence silent ischemia that may delay them from seeking pro- Canadian Cardiovascular Society classiﬁes clients with angina fessional help. Individuals with diabetes mellitus may present 774 CHAPTER 53 ANTIANGINAL DRUGS 775 BOX 53–1 TYPES OF ANGINA PECTORIS Classic causes platelets to aggregate at the site of injury, form a throm- Classic angina (also called stable, typical, or exertional angina) bus, and release chemical mediators that cause vasoconstriction occurs when atherosclerotic plaque obstructs coronary arteries and (eg, thromboxane, serotonin, platelet-derived growth factor). The the heart requires more oxygenated blood than the blocked arter- disrupted plaque, thrombus, and vasoconstriction combine to ies can deliver. Chest pain is usually precipitated by situations that obstruct blood ﬂow further in the affected coronary artery. When increase the workload of the heart, such as physical exertion, ex- the plaque injury is mild, blockage of the coronary artery may be posure to cold, and emotional upset. Recurrent episodes of classic intermittent and cause silent myocardial ischemia or episodes of angina usually have the same pattern of onset, duration, and in- anginal pain at rest. Pain is usually relieved by rest, a fast-acting may progress until the coronary artery is completely occluded, preparation of nitroglycerin, or both. The spasms occur most often in practice guidelines for the management of angina, deﬁnes unstable coronary arteries that are already partly blocked by atherosclerotic angina as meeting one or more of the following criteria: plaque. Variant angina usually occurs during rest or with minimal • Anginal pain at rest that usually lasts longer than 20 minutes exercise and often occurs at night. It often occurs at the same time • Recent onset (<2 months) of exertional angina of at least each day. Long-term Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classiﬁcation (CCSC) management includes avoidance of conditions that precipitate va- class III severity sospasm, when possible (eg, exposure to cold, smoking, and emo- • Recent (<2 months) increase in severity as indicated by pro- tional stress), as well as antianginal drugs. Unstable However, myocardial ischemia may also be painless or silent Unstable angina (also called rest, preinfarction, and crescendo in a substantial number of clients. Overall, the diagnosis is usu- angina) is a type of myocardial ischemia that falls between classic ally based on chest pain history, electrocardiographic evidence of angina and myocardial infarction. It usually occurs in clients with ischemia, and other signs of impaired cardiac function (eg, heart advanced coronary atherosclerosis and produces increased fre- failure). It often leads to Because unstable angina often occurs hours or days before myocardial infarction. The resulting injury to the endothelium farction, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death. The American Heart Association has released osclerotic plaque, develop in response to elevated blood cho- guidelines for the management of angina. Initially, white blood cells (monocytes) become Numerous overlapping factors contribute to the develop- attached to the endothelium and move through the endothelial ment and progression of CAD.
Brieﬂy buy discount celebrex 200mg on-line, the etched glass (hollow channels) is prepared for electrodepostion by coat- ing one surface with a thin layer of gold generic celebrex 200 mg on-line. The gold-coated channel glass is then attached to a gold Stimulation of Large Retinal Tissue Areas 33 Figure 2 celebrex 100mg low price. Electrodeposition of metal within the hollow channels of the glass proceeds by immersing the sample in an electroplating solution and applying a voltage using a current-regulated power supply. High-quality deposition is observed when the growth rate is main- tained lower than that commonly used for electrodeposition of bulk metals. The limited growth rate is most likely due to reactant depletion in the channels because di¤usion-limited transfer of reactants down the high aspect-ratio channels is unable to maintain an optimum reactant concentration. Following electrodepostition, the piece is removed from the slide and both sides are ground and polished to a smooth ﬁnish. An optical photograph of a microelectrode array of nickel microwires electro- deposited in channel glass is shown in ﬁgure 2. Microelectronic Multiplexer Design for an Advanced IRP The silicon multiplexer discussed previously performs several operations in a sequen- tial order. During the ﬁrst step, an image frame is read onto the multiplexer, pixel- by-pixel, to each unit cell. Row-by-row, each unit cell samples the analog video input and stores the pixel value as a charge on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capac- itor. A full ﬁeld is completed every sixtieth of a second in a manner compatible with the RS-170 television format (30 frames per second consisting of two ﬁelds per frame); this allows the use of the test prosthesis with standard video equipment. The digital electronics is of major im- portance because it generates the switching pulses that route image data into the unit cells. Without the on-chip digital electronics, a dozen or more clocks would have to be input to the device. That would make the cable through the eye wall much larger and more cumbersome. The use of IRFPA multiplexer technology greatly simpliﬁes the cable problems through the eye wall. After all the unit cells have been loaded with the pixel values for the current frame, the next step is to send a biphasic pulse to each unit cell, which in turn is modulated in proportion to the pixel value stored in each unit cell. The biphasic pulse ﬂows from an external source, through each unit cell, thus stimulating retinal neurons in a si- multaneous manner. This is an important feature of the design because it is a syn- chronistic action analogous to imaged photons stimulating photoreceptors in a normal retina. Finally, the electrodes are all connected to ground to prevent any pos- sible charge buildup at the electrode/neuron interface. There are several important considerations in designing a device that performs all these operations successfully. First, the multiplexer operation should be designed with Stimulation of Large Retinal Tissue Areas 35 Control logic Unit cells (80 x 40) Column MUX 3. Of course, the prosthetic test device moves image data in the direction opposite to that of a conventional imaging multiplexer; that is, the image moves onto the device rather than o¤ it, but otherwise the speciﬁ- cations are analogous. Another consideration is that each unit cell should store an individual pixel value and then use it to modulate the biphasic pulse that is input to the retinal tissue through the NCG. Note that the biphasic pulse and the image data are both generated o¤-chip. This allows greater ﬂexibility during human testing because any image sequence can be input and com- bined with any shape of biphasic pulse. Ancillary Electronics The operation of the test device during acute experiments is controlled and powered by external ancillary electronics (ﬁgure 2. The input signal is an image sequence at data rates fast enough to achieve 60 frames per second.
Although ACE inhibitors are also used in the treat- by observing for signs and symptoms of urinary tract ment of hypertension trusted 100mg celebrex, their ability to delay nephropathy seems infection buy discount celebrex 200 mg, peripheral vascular disease purchase celebrex 200mg fast delivery, vision changes, to be independent of antihypertensive effects. Teach clients sures to preserve renal function include effective treatment of CHAPTER 27 ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS 395 CLIENT TEACHING GUIDELINES Antidiabetic Drugs General Considerations If you take acarbose (Precose) or miglitol (Glyset) along ✔ Wear or carry diabetic identiﬁcation (eg, a Medic-Alert neck- with insulin, glimepiride (Amaryl), glipizide (Glucotrol), lace or bracelet) at all times, to aid treatment if needed. Few other diseases require as much adap- glucose (or glucagon) for treatment. Sucrose (table sugar) tation in activities of daily living, and you must be well and other oral carbohydrates do not relieve hypoglycemia informed to control the disease, minimize complications, because the presence of acarbose or miglitol prevents and achieve an optimal quality of life. Although much in- their digestion and absorption from the gastrointestinal formation is available from health care providers (physi- (GI) tract. If American Diabetes Association you take insulin, glucagon should be available in the 1660 Duke St. Alexandria, VA 22314 ✔ The best way to prevent, delay, or decrease the severity 1-800-ADA-DISC of diabetes complications is to maintain blood sugar at Other measures include ✔ In general, a consistent schedule of diet, exercise, and regular visits to health care providers, preferably a team medication produces the best control of blood sugar lev- of specialists in diabetes care; regular vision and glau- els and the least risk of complications. In addition, if you ✔ Diet, weight control, and exercise are extremely impor- have hypertension, treatment can help prevent heart tant in managing diabetes. Exercise helps body tissues use insulin better, counter drugs unless these are discussed with the physi- which means that glucose moves out of the bloodstream cian treating the diabetes because adverse reactions and and into muscles and other body tissues. For example, nasal decongestants more normal blood glucose levels and decreases long- (alone or in cold remedies) and asthma medications may term complications of diabetes. In addition, liquid cold remedies to take a medication, notify a health care provider. To and cough syrups may contain sugar and raise blood glu- control blood sugar most effectively, medications are bal- cose levels. If you take insulin, you need ✔ If you wish to take any kind of herbal or dietary supple- to know what type(s) you are taking, how to obtain more, ment, you should discuss this with the health care and how to store it. Regular and NPH insulins and mix- provider who is managing your diabetes. There has been tures (eg, Humulin) are available over-the-counter; Hu- little study of these preparations in relation to diabetes; malog, NovoLog, and Lantus require a prescription. If you start a supplement, you need to allow for weather or other conditions that might prevent replacement of insulin or other supplies when needed. Testing should be done more often glycemia may indicate a need to change some aspect of when medication dosages are changed or when you are ill. Speciﬁc recommendations should (hypoglycemia): sweating, nervousness, hunger, weak- be individualized and worked out with health care providers ness, tremors, and mental confusion. Although each person needs individualized instruc- are alert and able to swallow, take 4 oz of fruit juice, 4 to tions, some general guidelines include the following: 6 oz of a sugar-containing soft drink, a piece of fruit or ✔ Continue your antidiabetic medications unless in- 1⁄ cup of raisins, two to three glucose tablets (5 grams structed otherwise. Additional insulin also may be 3 each), a tube of glucose gel, 1 cup of skim milk, tea or cof- needed, especially if ketosis develops. Ketones (ace- fee with 2 teaspoons of sugar, or eight Lifesaver candies. Insulin is absorbed test urine for ketones when the blood glucose level fastest from the abdomen. If unable within 2 inches of the belly button or into any skin to test urine, have someone else do it. About 15 g of carbohydrate every dosage of both insulins unless measured very care- 1 to 2 hours is usually enough and can be provided fully. Commercial mixtures are also available for some by 1⁄ cup of apple juice, applesauce, cola, cranberry 2 combinations. Water, tea, broths, clear soups, diet soda, or ration for immediate use if a hypoglycemic reaction carbohydrate-containing ﬂuids are acceptable. Recommendations usually ber of times you urinate, vomit, or have loose stools. Starting with a small dose and in- creasing it gradually helps to prevent bloating, gas ✔ Use correct techniques for injecting insulin: pains, and diarrhea.
Of interest to the topic of this chapter are the observations that neurons did not lose adhesion to glia discount celebrex 200mg otc, and that glia did not lose their adhesion to the sub- strate as long as the glial carpet was conﬂuent buy celebrex 100 mg visa, the neurons were highly dispersed buy celebrex 200mg overnight delivery, and fasciculation was at a minimum. These interesting results indicate that under ap- propriate conditions, neuronal and glial adhesion in primary cultures is remarkably stable unless compromised by pH ﬂuctuations, low calcium, or rapid changes in osmolarity of the medium. In addition, adhesion islands that do not have adequate coverage with PDL or laminin at their periphery often show partial glial carpet re- traction in areas where glia ventured beyond the PDL regions onto the ﬂamed areas. Elastic forces generated within the glial carpet then overcome the weak adhesion to the ﬂamed surface. Cellular Constituents of the Cultures Despite substantial progress in immunocytochemistry, a quantitative cell identiﬁca- tion in mixed neuronal-glial cultures is still extremely di‰cult. Neuronal counts per microscope ﬁeld are greatly dependent on seeding densities and early adhesion con- ditions that are di‰cult to determine accurately. An estimate of neurons in culture as percentage of total cells depends as much on neuronal survival as on glial survival and proliferation. Antibody staining depends on culture age, tissue source, and level of di¤erentiation of cells. For these reasons we consider the Bodian stain (Bodian, 1936) or Loots-modiﬁed Bodian (Loots et al. Long-Term Contact between Neural Networks and Microelectrode Arrays 183 Table 9. Neurons were stained with neuroﬁlament monoclonal antibodies (Sigma; catalog no. Despite density ﬂuctu- ations, a stabilization of neuronal counts past 30 days (vertical line) is apparent. After 30 days, neuronal loss is approximately 10% in 100 days or 3% per month. Although the percentage is inﬂuenced by variable glial proliferation, primar- ily before treatment, the table clearly shows a substantial neuronal cell death (ap- proximately 35%) between 15 and 30 days in vitro. It is di‰cult to estimate the neuronal cell death during the ﬁrst 2 weeks after seeding because molecular markers are not expressed reliably (Whithers and Banker, 1998). The numbers on the columns in A and B indicate the number of di¤erent cultures in each dataset. The numbers in C also represent the number of cultures and are the same for each set of columns in C and D. A linear regression for the scatter plot shows a neuron loss of approximately 3% per month. These results are in general accord with the more qualitative observations found in the literature. Control of Glia in Culture In the adult CNS, there can be found at least ten times as many glia cells as neurons (Streit, 1995). Microglia represent 5–20% of the entire central nervous system glial cell population, and there are at least as many microglia as there are neurons (Kreutzberg, 1987; Perry and Gordon, 1988). Although these ratios are not the same at the time embryonic tissue is isolated for culturing, glia represent a major constituent of the dissociated tissue and continue to develop after seeding. Cultures overgrown with glia provide poor optical data and were at one time thought to lose more neurons than cultures treated with antimitotics. We have recorded from cul- tures that were allowed to grow unrestrained (untreated) and cultures treated with either cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, 7. The results show a di¤erence in electrode yield (number of electrodes Long-Term Contact between Neural Networks and Microelectrode Arrays 185 80 20 70 max S/N mean S/N 60 15 50 40 10 30 31 19 7 31 19 7 20 5 10 0 0 A untreated ARAC-C FDU-U untreated ARAC-C FDU-U B 1400 35 untreated 30 1200 1000 ARAC-C 25 800 FDU-U 20 600 20 15 400 11 10 200 6 5 0 0 C native BCC BCC/STR D native BCC BCC/STR Figure 9. Untreated cultures have more microglia and reaveal a thicker glial carpet with a typical cobblestone e¤ect.
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